Pilots follow rivers, roads, railway lines and other identifiable
land features. Visual navigation is mainly used by light aircraft
pilots. Note on Map 2 the yellow line represents where the pilot wishes to fly. Note roads, railway lines and rivers.
our planet are broken down into North/South and East/West
for use in navigating planes and ships. The Equator is
well known as the centre latitude, by convention zero
meridian of longitude passes through Greenwich, London,
UK. Under the menu item "Time and Seasons" (Enviroment
Menu) you can learn about GMT..... Greenwich Mean Time.
It is vital to navigating.
Instrument (Airline) Navigation
Airline pilots use a combination of radio beacons and onboard
navigation equipment such as IRS, INS or GPS. The IRS
(Inertial Reference System) or INS (Inertial Navigation
System) are spin-offs from the Space industry using accelerometers
or laser gyros to seek movement. GPS (Global Positioning
Satellite) use satellites in orbit to track position.
After the parked position is loaded the route to be taken
needs to be loaded with positions enroute entered
in a similar manner to the co-ordinates shown for
Honolulu. These enroute positions can be loaded manually,
via a card system, via a computer database retrieval
system or, on my plane, via a satellite datalink
to my company.
The small section of an aircraft navigation chart is shown
here for an area near Chicago, USA. The long black lines
indicate the airways that pilots fly, not unlike a car
highway system. The navigational aids shown are shown
in boxes such as Northbrook in the top left. The radio
frequency of the aid is displayed along with the morse
code identification and the position of the aid. The
tracks are shown in degrees relative to North. The track
out of Northbrook 092 degrees would take you to Onbar.